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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH

A Step Towards Excellence
Published by : Advanced Scientific Research
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0975-2366
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IJPR 9[3] July - September 2017 Special Issue

July - September 9[3] 2017

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Diuretic effect of Xanthine derivatives: A Critical Review

Author: SHABNAMTHAKUR, RAKESH YADAV, RUPALI SHARMA, AMIT CHAWLA
Abstract: Background: Since 1864, natural xanthine derivatives have been used to treat renal illness. Until the introduction of more strong diuretics, natural xanthine derivatives were frequently employed to stimulate urine production. Natural xanthine derivatives' diuretic efficacy is stated as theophylline > caffeine > paraxanthine > theobromine as per findings. Objective: The exact mechanism by which xanthine derivatives induce renal vascular vasodilation has not been fully explained, however, it appears to involve inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and adenosine receptor blockade. There is a lot of research to be done on the diuretic impact of xanthine derivatives and currently, no specific analysis has been conducted out to date. Methodology: Articles on the pharmacology, therapeutic potential, metabolism, and chemical context of xanthine derivatives were identified using a comprehensive English literature search conducted in PubMed and Scopus, with no time constraint. Conclusion: Such research would help researchers better understand the indications, actions, and contraindications of diuretics as a beneficial treatment for heart failure, hypertension, ascites, and other conditions. Herein, we intend to comprehensively review the chemistry and diuretic aspects of xanthine derivatives. The review covers a detailed overview of the chemical aspects of xanthine derivatives utilized for diuretic effects.
Keyword: Pharmaceutical chemistry; Natural product chemistry; Drug development; Caffeine; Theophylline; Theobromine
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2022.14.04.003
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