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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH

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IJPR included in UGC-Approved List of Journals - Ref. No. is SL. No. 4812 & J. No. 63703

Published by : Advanced Scientific Research
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0975-2366
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IJPR 9[3] July - September 2017 Special Issue

July - September 9[3] 2017

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Isolation and characterization of novel bioactive compounds from Taxus baccata and Swertia chirata found in Uttarakhand region for their effect on multidrug resistant strains

Author: BINDU SATI, VIJAYKANT PUROHIT, SANJAY BHATT, HARISH CHANDRA ANDOLA
Abstract: Misuse and overuse of antibiotics results in widespread multi-drug resistance. The major cause of increased mortality and morbidity rates is Multi-drug resistance to antibiotics and it becomes a global heath challenges now a days, therefore it becomes a necessity and need for researchers to seek for alternative and natural sources of antimicrobials. In the present study an experimental trial (In-vitro and In-vivo) was undertaken to examine the antibacterial activity of extracts of Taxus baccata fruit and Swertia chirata leaf against multi drug resistant (MDR) E.coli and S.aureus. Broth dilution test for MIC and Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility test were applied to investigate Antibacterial activity of plant methanolic extracts. Twenty five albino mice weighted between 180-200g were used for bacterial inhibitory activity (In- Vivo) and acute toxicity study in both plant extracts. The mice were devided into five groups. Each group had five animals. After dose administration, animals were observed for Mortality, Body weights, Food and water consumption, Behavioural study, haematological parameters and Gross pathology for 14 days. Different Pharmacognostic standards such as ash values, solubility, botanical description, pH, extractive values and preliminary phytochemical analysis of Swertia chirata and Taxus baccata have been discussed. In this study, the bioactive compounds of both plants have been evaluated using GCMS. The chemical compositions of the leaves of Swertia chirata and fruit of Taxus baccata plant methanol extract were investigated using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our findings indicated that the yield of percentage of pharmacognostic standards are well within the limit as mentioned in Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia. The results of phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, flavonoids compounds, carbohydrates, sterols, tri-terpinoids, proteins, tannins and saponins were present in methanol plant extract of both plants. Both plant extracts showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against S. aureus in comparison to E. coli and showed MIC values of 20µg/ml in. Taxus baccata plant extract showed minimum zone of inhibition against E. coli (8.3±0.6) and largest zone of inhibiton against S. aureus (20.3±0.35). Swertia chirata plant extract. Swertia chirata contains lesser inhibition zone against E. coli (8.7±0.80) and showed highest zone of inhibition against S. aureus (16.2±0.60). It can be concluded that both the extracts were significantly better (P<0.05) against S. aureus than E. coli. fourteen compounds of various chemical classes (tri-terpenoids, phenol, acids, and fatty acids) eluted between 18.16 and 47.25 min were observed in the GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of S. chirata. It was found to contain 6 chemical constituents in methanol extract of Taxus baccata fruit eluted between 7.529 and 26.327 min. identified components are classified as sugars, acids, alcohols, n-alkanes, taxanes, flavonoids, n-aldehydes, coumarans, alkaloids, etc. In mice blood samples, bacterial counts were declined in group II and III when E. coli infected mice group were given methanolic extract of Taxus baccata and Swertia chirata respectively. Bacterial units was decreased in groups II and III, when mice of this group (infected with E. coli) were given methanolic extract of Taxus baccata and Swertia chirata respectively followed by group IV and V infected with S. aureus and treated with methanolic extract of Taxus baccata and Swertia chirata respectively. These findings have cleared demonstrated that the clearance of bacteria from the blood of infected mice by sub-MIC of plant extract was significant. The number of bacteria in treated groups was very low, and the findings of present study provide a suitable evidences for the use of a drug composed of plant extract as a new generation of drugs to attack the antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The results of the acute toxicity study showed that the methanol leaves extract of Swertia chirata and methanol fruit extract of Taxus baccata giventhrough oral route to mice did not showed death and any sign of toxicity in the animals at the doses 500 and 2000 mg/kg. The oral LD50 of methanolic extract of both plants has been shown to be greater than 2000 mg/kg and is generally considered safe. The current study suggests that these plants could be a potential source of natural remedy against various disease causing pathogens such as MDR S. aureus and MDR E. coli
Keyword: Antibacterial activity, Taxus baccata, Swertia chirata, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2021.13.02.098
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