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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH

A Step Towards Excellence
Published by : Advanced Scientific Research
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0975-2366
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IJPR 9[3] July - September 2017 Special Issue

July - September 9[3] 2017

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Oral Health in Down Syndrome - A Literature Review

Author: NUR HANNAH, MAHESH RAMAKRISHNAN
Abstract: Down syndrome is a common genetic disorder that varies in severity and is associated with medical and physical problems. The orofacial and skeletal development of DS individuals may result in various dental problems and are mainly seen after 10 years of age. Anatomical changes seen in the cranial base, mid third of the face, maxilla and mandible contribute to the recognisable facial form of DS individuals. Dental anomalies such as reduced crown-root ratio, reduced tooth size, delayed eruption and hypodontia or partial anodontia are commonly associated with DS. Children and young adults with DS normally show low incidence of dental caries. Treatments such as good oral hygiene and supervised tooth brushing programmes and early education in the forms of videotapes may be helpful in the management of dental problems associated with DS individuals. Most individuals with DS are often associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability while a small percentage of them are present with severe conditions. Delayed development which includes speech and language are common characteristics of individuals with DS. Presence of mental and physical disabilities usually complicate the management of oral health. The aim is to review the various dental conditions associated with Down syndrome (DS) and its management with the objective to study the importance of proper oral healthcare in Down syndrome individuals. Oral care of DS individuals requires the utilization of proper skills that is used every day in a dental clinic. Most patients with mild or moderate Down syndrome can be successfully treated based on general practice methods. It is important for a dental practitioner to obtain and review the patient’s medical history, along with consultation with family and caregivers prior to any treatment.
Keyword: Caries; children; Down syndrome; oral health; periodontitis.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.12.04.298
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