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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH

A Step Towards Excellence
Published by : Advanced Scientific Research
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0975-2366
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IJPR 9[3] July - September 2017 Special Issue

July - September 9[3] 2017

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Comparison of the effect of Mini-Bier's Block using Ketamine and Lidocaine on Propofol Injection pain in Children Aged 3-8 Undergoing Inguinal Hernia Surgery

Author: ALIREZA TAKZARE, MEHRDAD GOUDARZI, ANAHID MALEKI, FAHIMEH BORJIKHANI, MEHDI SANATKAR
Abstract: Objective: Propofol is a safe and effective anesthetic commonly used in pediatric surgeries. However, pain on propofol injection is the most important problem associated with its pediatric use. Reducing pain on propofol injection has beneficial effects on induction of anesthesia. Materials and methods: In this study, sixty 3-8 year-old ASA I children and two candidates for elective inguinal hernia surgery were assigned to three groups. In the first group, the tourniquet was tied and 10 mg of ketamine in a 1 ml solution was injected in 30 seconds. Then, the tourniquet was untied and propofol was used to induce anesthesia. 1 ml of lidocaine 2% w/v and 1 ml of 9% normal saline was injected in the second and third groups, respectively. Ten seconds after propofol injection, the occurrence of pain was assessed on the Cameron Scale and was determined to be 0-3 across all groups. Agitation, nausea, and vomiting during recovery were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: There were no significant differences between the study groups in terms of such demographic variables as age and sex, and the subjects in all three study groups had a mean age of 5 years. Pain on propofol injection was 1.4 on average in the studied patients. The average pain intensity was 0.7, 1.3, and 2.2 in the ketamine, lidocaine, and control groups, respectively. Considering a p-value of 0.00, this difference was significant. In terms of hemodynamic changes, statistical analysis indicated a significantly lower blood pressure drop in the ketamine group compared to the other groups (p=0.00). The average satisfaction rate of recovery nurses was 4.1 in the ketamine group, 3.75 in the lidocaine group, and 2.75 in the control group (p=0.00). Statistical analysis did not show a significant difference between groups in terms of occurrence of nausea. The average length of stay in the studied patients was 44.88 minutes, with no significant difference between groups in length of stay in recovery (p=0.144). Discussion and Conclusion: This study found the reduction of pain intensity to be in the following order: Ketamine> Lidocaine> Normal Saline. Also, ketamine provided greater cardiovascular stability than the other two drugs. Nurses were most satisfied with the ketamine group, which leads to the conclusion that the patients who received ketamine were more relaxed during recovery.
Keyword: Propofol, ketamine, inguinal hernia, pediatrics, lidocaine
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